The term Youth Culture
The term to define consists of two words with different meanings Whereas the term Youth is clear to everybody we firstly have to define what aspects the word Culture deals with Die Kultur einer Gruppe oder Klasse umfat die besondere und distinkte Lebensweise dieser Gruppe oder Klasse die Bedeutungen Werte und Ideen wie sie in den Institutionen in den gesellschaftlichen Beziehungen in Glaubenssystemen in Sitten und Bruchen im Gebrauch der Objekte und im materiellen Leben verkrpert sind1
That means culture is the way people act and behave after experiencing the way of living in their specific social class We can consider that during their childhood working-class youths especially get to know all ideologies and values of working-class culture That is very important in terms of forming groups and gangs where members have the same behaviour and values
Furthermore A Cohen utters Menschliche Handlungsweisen hngen von der Art der Probleme ab die jeder bewltigen mu2 These problems differ from one class to the other which means a person who lives in the working class has to deal with other problems than an upper class person
Every society is built up of a variety of cultures eg working-class culture and upper-class culture which each have certain subgroups and subcultures
The Youth Cultures in post-war Britain developed in the working class After childhood they tried to invent or in some way change their origin culture Due to that fact we can conclude that Youth Cultures are a subculture of working-class culture Downes puts forward the thesis that Subkulturen sich zusammenfinden um kollektiv erfahrene Schwierigkeiten zu lsen3 Working-class youth had common problems and difficulties therefore they got together and tried to raise the attention of society for their conflicts How two examples of these Youth Cultures namely the Rockers and the Modernists ab
Mods could develop and raise societys attention I want to explain in my further work

The origin of youth cultures in post-war Britain
There existed several decisive factors that led to the creation
of youth cultures in the working class Firstly the new school system that was introduced after the education act made it possible that pupils reaching the age of eleven spend most of their time in age-specific educational institutions That had been completely different during World War II and before when most teenagers had been educated in all-age elementary schools Now teenagers spent their school time together with other youths of same age who had common problems dreams and interests in music fashion etc These pupils formed new groups even small societies for themselves whereas the adult society did not influence them that much anymore They began to constitute their own rules and values
The youths could get new influences on fashion and music from the newly invented mass communications and mass entertainment TV radio and the Press fed them with the latest inventions in fashion and informed them about the new record of a hip pop group In their own little society teenagers declared for themselves which of these inventions were really hip to them and among these influences they began to form their own style
It is also important to mention that now youths were able to consume a lot more than their predecessors could
The new spending power of youths was made possible by the increasing income of teenagers For example Abrams states Verglichen mit 1938 stieg ihr Realeinkommen unter Berck-sichtigung der Geldentwertung um 50 das ist doppelt soviel wie der Zuwachs bei den Erwachsenen und das Budget das sie zur freien Verfgung haben stieg um etwa 100 4 That this assumption is right we can also get from the following table
It makes evident the imense rise of income of youths during the period from 1948 to 1968
Table 1 Average weekly earnings of young manual workers5
Year boys under 21 years Girls under 18 years s p s p
1948 2 18 0 2 8 111950 3 2 6 2 12 81952 3 13 4 2 19 41954 4 3 10 3 7 81956 5 1 5 3 19 101958 5 10 10 4 6 21960 6 6 7 4 15 01962 7 1 6 5 4 41964 8 1 6 5 18 11966 9 12 4 6 15 51968 10 14 11 7 11 0
Adolescents now could afford to buy the clothes records scooters or motorbikes they wanted so they were no longer dependent on their parents holds They could meet other like-minded youths at concerts of their favourite music group The result was that youths could form new groups with people who thought and behaved similarly to themselves Not only at schools but also in their leisure-time These groups or societies got more and more and suddenly were so popular that the whole nation noticed the new youth movements Two popular examples of these movements were the Rockers and the Mods

Typical appearance of a Rocker
One way of expressing a protest by the Rockers is their outward appearance In society they were known as dirty unfriendly chaps They were often badly educated and therefore had no good jobs Thats why they could not afford to buy expensive and fashioned clothes which clearly distinguished them from the Mods way of consuming and behaving While other working-class citizens were all dressed normal the new Rocker-youths started to wear leather jackets and smeary jeans as their models Marlon Brando or James Dean did in the USA The American Hells Angels also had a great influence on the young Rockers Most jackets were decorated with iron rivets and buttons to make them look more dangerous They had greasy hear and often wore a big curl Girls also wore leather jackets and skirts and did not look less dangerous than their male pendants A perfect Rocker also owned a motorbike and a girl friend Whereas owning a girl mustnt be understood figuratively The Rockers are a male dominated youth cult and girls are just seen as sexual objects In contrast to the Rockers with a motorbike there also existed teenagers who could not afford to buy a motorbike but also identified themselves as Rockers They were called the Greasers and had a very similar appearance to the Rockers All in all you can say their extraordinary way of dressing was one way of expressing protest towards the society The following picture of Marlon Brando shows a typical Rocker A tough guy dressed in leather standing nearby a motorbike This picture is taken from the film The Wild One that also impressed many youths in that time

The Rockers way of behaving in the society
Another very interesting aspect in the life of Rockers is their way of behaving in society Most Rockers were badly educated and therefore often worked as craftsmen or unskilled workers where payment was very bad The Rockers bad reputation in society can mostly be attributed to their very aggressive and violent way of behaving Motorcycle gangs mostly met at petrol stations near highways in order to look for some trouble or simply to tease other people Greasers spent their time at Cafs in town or were also members of motorcycle gangs
Willis describes a typical evening of a Rocker like this
Ein Kaffee im Caf ein Drink und Pfeilwerfen in der Stammkneipe ein Spiel Tischtennis oder Flipper im Caf allgemeines Herumalbern vor der Tr6 and sometimes of course battles with other youths All in all a very monotone everyday life where aggressions can easily develop

Ideology and lifestyle of a Rocker
One very important aspect in the Rockers lifestyle and ideology is the belief in physical strength and control by manpower They needed this power to ride and control their motorbikes While riding their motorbikes they always were eye to eye with the death and they could only escape from death if they were able to control their machine Therefore they also hated drugs because if a Rocker used drugs he could not perfectly control his motorbike any more Whereas alcohol also counted as a drug In this context a Rocker utters Wenn ich was nich knnt ohne Drogen im Bauch ich wrds erst gar nich machen wollen7People who needed drugs to have enough courage to beat up someone or to get a tattoo were also declared as cowards To come back to the importance of motorbikes For some Rockers dying on a motorbike was the goal of their life The future had no importance in these teenagers lives the heat of the moment while riding a motorbike was the real thing they tried to achieve
wenn ich wte jetzt gehts zu Ende mit mir ich tt nicht einfach losschieben und mich einfach so hopssgehn lassen Ich wrd gern sterben wenn ich die Strae entlangdonnervoll aufs Gas dann kommt son Mordslaster rumms und das ist das Ende schn nich
8 So you can see dying on a motorbike in real trouble was seen as a gift but if someone died because he committed a silly fault his death did not have anymeaning The dream of a lonesome rider could look like this Im Himmel un da gibts ne mordsgroe freie Strae und du hast en Mordstempo drauf weite du kannst nur trumen von keine Autos keine Mopeds nichts blo Motorrder un ab un zu gibts ein Caf alle fnfzehn Kilometer oder so uns spielt Musik Rockmusik is doch gebongt und berall warten blonde Brute auf dich es mu doch unheimlich stark da oben sein ehrlich 9
All these dreams and values just counted for motorbike-riding Rockers but what about the Greasers Now we have to consider all aspects that do not deal with motorbikes
Rockers liked their male-dominated culture they liked to beat themselves with other boys or to pretend a battle with a friend In fact aggressiveness was very usual and they used it whenever something did not fit their will Referring to the arrival of scooters at their Caf a Rockers answered Da wrd echt nich viel von brigbleiben or Wenn ein Haufen Scheimods hierherkm die wren erledigt10 For this aggressiveness they were feared in society but Rockers did not mind that at all They had their gang or motorcycle-club where their own new society was And not everybody could get into this society it is commonly known that there exist very hard rules and admission tests for those gangs

The different styles of Modernists
During the 60s another famous youth cult found its way to shock the society The new expression Mod was born and became famous in the whole society But the expression Mod did not characterize one single type of youths Brake defines four different styles of Mods11
Firstly he mentions the art school high camp students who were very effeminate often used make-up and wore handbags For them it was most important to have the latest look and fashion A descendant of this Mod-scene was the Glitter- and Art Rock culture of the seventies
Secondly there are the so-called scooter-Mods They used Vespas and other scooters which were decorated with lots of rear-view mirrors and other cromium-plated extras to come around in town Most of them wore parkas gym shoes or often Crombie coats and jackets while they were riding scooters
Thirdly there existed the hard Mods who wore Jeans and Dockers because they did not earn enough money to buy expensive and exclusive dresses These youths later on were known as Skinheads
And last but not least there was the mainstream Mod
In my further performance I will especially consider the mainstream Mods and parts of the scooter Mods image because those styles were most popular in society

The appearance of a usual Mod
The usual Mod did not try to shock society by appearing to be very dangerous or dirty like the Rockers insisted to Mods used to copy the Mafiosi style of New York gangsters whom they knew from crime films Their common dresses consisted of jackets tight trousers and acute shoes All in all very noble and fashioned dresses This was very hard to understand for their parents because working-class youths usually could not afford to buy such dresses But the new spending power their jobs gave them allowed them to shop in Boutiques where fashioned and expensive clothes offered
Most of them started to let their hair grow like famous pop-artists eg The Who or The Rolling Stones did
In contrast to usual cultural expectations many Mod-girls had short hair they were in some ways boyish feminists that led to a more unisex type of culture Those girls were of course also obsessed with fashion and style and in contrast to the Rockers culture had nearly equal rights to the boys of their peer group

The Mods way of behaving in the society
Mainstream Mods mostly worked as office workers or as skilled workers who had left Secondary Modern school at the age of fifteen After work they strolled around the boutiques in Londons Carnaby Street in order to find new clothes and outfits that belong to the latest look in fashion Those Mods tried to be on tour all night long At night they toured from Club to Club in Soho or Central London and listened to Rhythm and Blues or Modern Jazz Music Therefore they used alcohol amphetamines and other drugs to be able to dance the whole night through A boy called Denzil describes a perfect week as a Mod as follows Montagabend das bedeutet Tanzen gehen im Mekka im Hammersmith Palais im Purley Orchard oder im Stretham Locarno Dienstag bedeutet Soho und den Scene Club Mittwoch das war der Abend im Marquee Der Donnerstag war dem rituellen Haarewaschen vorbehalten Freitag das hie wieder in den Scene Club Samstagnachmittag hie Kleider und Schallplatten einkaufen gehen Samstagnacht gings dann tanzen und es endete selten vor 9 oder 10 Uhr am Sonntagmorgen Sonntagabend war das Flamenco dran oder falls einer Anzeichen von Schwche zeigte auch mal Ausschlafen 12 This life of course existed just in the dream reality of most Mods but they tried hard to achieve this way of life The two following pictures show young Mods during their leisure time
On the left A boutique in London on the right young Mods dancing 45

In the late sixties the Mod disappeared from the platform of society and new cultures like the hippies or the skinheads came up

The ideology and lifestyle of Mods with a musical example
The lifestyle of the Mod movement can be compared with the philosophy of Epikur the hedonism Having fun and parties were the top priorities of their life They created the expression Swinging London that soon was known all over the world as the place where the cookie crumbles In their leisure time the Mods could forget their boring jobs and their desolate homes where monotony spread With their cool and clean image they succeeded in distinguishing themselves clearly from the Rockers image To them the Rockers seemed to be dumb youths who could not handle with fashion But one thing they had in common with their cultural opponents the ignorance of future The Mods also lived for the moment for the next party or evening with their friends What will be in the future did not interest them much The Mods even feared the future because in the future they would be old and would not be able to go on living their life as they did in their youth That is why they always tried to reach a new goal in their life eg a better party than all the others more fashionable clothes etc But they never reached the end of the line were complete satisfaction was achieved
All these values and ideologies were topics of songs by famous pop-groups like The Who or The Rolling Stones As an example I chose the song My Generation 13 by Pete Townshend of The Who The song itself is full of aggressiveness and roughness The singer stutters in order to make the listener think he is not self-assured But the screaming vocals in some parts of the song represent pure anger and dissatisfaction

My Generation

People try to put us d-down Talkin bout my generation
Just because we get around Talkin bout my generation
Things they do look awful c-c-cold Talkin bout my generation
I hope I die before I get old Talkin bout my generation

This is my generation
This is my generation baby

Why dont you all f-fade away Talkin bout my generation
And dont try to dig what we all s-s-say Talkin bout my generation
Im not trying to cause a big s-s-sensation Talkin bout my generation
Im just talkin bout my g-g-g-generation Talkin bout my generation

This is my generation
This is my generation baby

People try to put us down just because we get around
Townsend talks about the envy of society for the Mods fashion and lifestyle Therefore the citizens want to put them down and make them live humiliate
Things they do look awful cold hope I die before I get old The fear of the future is the topic of this verse A Mod would rather die than to get old and not to be able to live in the Mod style Despite of that he is not satisfied with the present situation He asks society to leave him alone and not to copy their style and values This becomes evident when the singer shouts dont try to dig what we all say
All in all you can say the Mods image had a very strange effect on the common society In some ways their parents and bosses feared or simply could not comprehend their cool and clean image Those teenagers seemed to be unimpeachable and tried to be something better than their parents were Der Mod teilte seine schlge aus indem er die von seine Arbeitgebern und Eltern so hochgeschtzten Wertbilder Sauberkeit kurze Haare umkehrte und entstellte um einen Stil zu schaffen der obzwar der korrekten Welt ganz nahe dieser gleichwohl vllig unverstnd-lich blieb 14 Mods lived in the world of clubs women and fashion although they earned just 10 pounds a week and drove a scooter

The meaning of the Mod movement for the worldwide protest in the 60s
For the whole world it was the Mod movement that was the igniter for protests in other countries More and more the fascination of Swinging London and the new British Supergroups like The Who or The Rolling Stones spread the message of fashion and consuming all over the world It was also the media in other European countries that helped to let people know about the new style of dressing and dancing Teenagers all over Europe could see the clothes of their favourite artists in fan magazines and on television shows It is also evident that the different styles of Mod were all original cultures to later more famous movements like the Skinheads and Punk

Evaluation of the two movements
The Rockers and Mods really changed society in several ways Firstly there is to mention the sexual revolution that on the on hand was made possible through the invention of a contraceptive pill But on the other hand the youth of the 1960s were the first ones who used that pill Especially the music of the Rockers is full of sexual allusions Eg the song
The Wanderer by Dion A part of the lyrics run theres Flo on my left and Mary on my right and Janie is the girl Im gonna be with tonight The singer obviously announces to be together with several girls It was not common until the sexual re-volution to utter something like that in public Girls with mini-skirts and long wild hair could be seen everywhere in the late 1960s
Secondly the Mods were the first youth to buy their clothes at boutiques where originally only homosexual customers used to look for fashion These styles of fashion soon spread all over the world because Mod bands like the Small Faces also wore these clothes The whole fashion industry would not exist if those youths had not started to buy extraordinary clothes
As a negative aspect I would consider the drug use Until the sixties drugs were mainly consumed by rich people that took Cocaine for example Mods started to take Amphetamines or other pills that allowed them to stay awake longer and this drug use caused many deaths especially when LSD became popular
Despite of these really important changes the youth cults invented we have also to consider the fact that the optimism and the spirit of Swinging London still couldnt influence the whole society There were still many youths that lived in poverty but the first step was made to create a more open-minded and liberal society

Why were there fewer movements in the 90s
Apart from the Grunge scene the 90s did not bring about any decisive youth movements comparable to the 60s movements There were just some new music styles like hip-hop or grunge that attracted youths and with that of course came new fashion interests But all in all these youths could not shock their parents as did the youths of the 60s The reasons for this lie in the inventions their parents fought for The parents of 90s youths were all more or less a part of the 60s and 70s movements And the freedom and ideologies the youths of the 60s tried to teach society they now teach their own children as the most normal values So the basic question for youths in the 90s is What are we fighting for It is clear that every generation in some way tries to be different from their parents but as an example the Techno and Rave movement of the 90s those youths praise love and music eg the Love Parade but isnt all that similar to the Hippie cult of the seventies Its difficult to really find something new that can really change society like the subcultures of the 60s and 70s did and therefore the protest in the 90s is less important