<p>Did Boris Yeltsin really resign?</p>
<p>The people of Russia were led to believe that on New Years Day, January 1st, President Boris Yeltsin suspiciously and suddenly resigned. Some people claim he was to old and to senile to finish his presidential term, others claim he was too sick, deathly sick, others claim he was just fed up with the horrible condition of the Russian Government. Still, a raising number of conspirators are led to believe that Boris Yeltsin, in no way resigned, but was silently assassinated by a group of terrorist rebels from Southern Siberia. Russian Intelligence staged the entire resigning to prevent panic and chaos amongst citizens during the coming of the New Year. Although not a thing has been proved yet, people in Russia are beginning to get suspicious, Yeltsin has not been seen on the news or in his private estate. The Rallies held to conspire about the truth are brutally broken-up by Moscow police officers with knight sticks and riot poles, many citizens are rushed to the hospital to intensive care. All Russian Government officials are holding comments until further notice. It is rumored that the over eight turbulent and often chaotic years of social and political transformation Yeltsin presided were just too much for the rebels to put up with. It is said Boris Yeltsin was assassinated within the Kremlin. It also seems the rebel's attempts did help Russia at all.</p>
<p>Word Count: 236</p>
<p>Yellow journalism, or yellow press , refers to an unethical, irresponsible brand of journalism given to hoaxes, altered photographs, screaming headlines, scoops , frauds, and endless promotions of the newspapers themselves. This term was first used in the 1890 s to describe the competition between two rival New York City newspapers, the World, and the Journal.</p>
<p>In 1883, Joseph Pulitzer purchased the New York-based newspaper, the World. With its vivid, sensational reporting and excellent crusades against political corruption and social injustice, Pulitzer made the World, the largest newspaper circulation in the country. One of his most famous staff writers was Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cockrane).</p>
<p>Bly was best known for her stunt stories. An example of one of her stunts was when she pretended to be insane and committed herself to the New York Blackwell Island Asylum. When she was released after ten days, she wrote a story exposing the asylum s poor conditions. The story sparked reform from all around the country! Her most famous story, however, included her trip around the world. During that time period, Jules Verne wrote Around the World in Eighty Days ; Bly was inspired to do it in less time. Her mission was accomplished in 72 days! She captured readers attentions by writing daily about her adventures.In 1895, however, William Randolph Hearst, the son of a California mining tycoon, challenged Pulitzer s superiority, when he bought the Journal. Previous to his relocation to New York, Hearst owned the widely popular newspaper, Examiner, back in San Francisco. Hoping to duplicate the Examiner s success with the Journal, Hearst intended to surpass his competitors in sensationalism, crusades, and Sunday features. One of the Journal s more notable headlines, published in 1898, was when they provoked a quarrel between the U.S. and Spain.</p>
<p>In 1895, when Cuba began to seek independence from Spain, the World and the Journal whipped up a war climate in support of the Cuban nationalists and tried to lure the U.S. into the conflict. An example of this rivalry, between the newspapers, is of the story of a Journal reporter stationed in Cuba. He had cabled Hearst that there was no war and that he would be coming home. Hearst is said to have wired back: Please remain. You furnish the pictures, and I ll furnish the war. (pg. 11, Ferguson, Patten)</p>
<p>When the battleship USS Maine blew up in the Havana harbor in 1898, the Journal published this:</p>
<p>Congress demanded that Spain leave the island, and when they refused, the Spanish-American War ensued.</p>
<p>Hearst was so determined to subdue his rivals, that he had the audacity to hire some of Pulitzer s staff away from the World, in addition to some of his San Francisco staff.</p>
<p>Hearst tried to entice the World s cartoonist, Richard F. Outcault, into drawing his immensely popular cartoon, The Yellow Kid , for the Sunday Journal, but when Outcault declined, Hearst hired George B. Luks instead. The two rival cartoons instigated so much attention that the competition between the two newspapers became to be known as yellow journalism .</p>
<p>As their competition became more renowned, the papers intrigued more people, thus increasing circulation. The yellow press was more concerned with selling newspapers, than the matter of the people s welfare.</p>
<p>Today, yellow journalism is still in publication, but more commonly known as tabloids. The Pulitzer name continues to live on through the Pulitzer Prize # and some distinguished newspapers. The Hearst chain of newspapers is much smaller now, than at its peak, with 42 dailies. Some Hearst publications include teenybopper# magazines such as Bop and BB (Big Bopper). Also, the Hearst Foundation was created for the sole purpose of journalism education, as ironic as that sounds. The foundation has made valuable contributions through its news writing and photography contests for journalism school undergraduates.</p>
<p>The end of yellow journalism ushered in a period when American newspapers developed a significant social consciousness. More people were reading it for information, than for entertainment purposes, like they originally did. Many papers crusaded for child labor laws, promoted hospitals and tuberculosis sanitariums, collected money for the needy and exposed public graft.</p>
<p>#1 A prestigious award given yearly in various categories, to credible journalists who exhibit outstanding writing.</p>
<p>#2 Magazines intended for teenagers and pre-adolescents containing articles and pictures of their favorite movie, music, and sports stars. They celebrities are usually peers of the consumer.</p>
<p>Works Cited</p>
<p>Boorstein, Daniel J., and Kelley, Brooks Mather. A History of the United States. Needham, Massachusetts: Prentice Hall, 1996.</p>
<p>Ferguson, Donald L., and Patten, Jim. Journalism Today!. Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company, 1988.</p>
<p>Yellow Journalism . Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th Edition. 1996</p>
<p>YELLOW JOURNALISM</p>
<p>Yellow journalism is a moneymaking tactic that started a war and a new brand of reporting. Yellow Journalism has effected a lot of lives over the past one hundred years hat it has been around. It has brought out the worst in many people and it can really expose a person s life. On the other hand it can be of some good, I mean who are we to know that everything that is printed in the newspapers. Most of the time Yellow Journalism is not a positive act, it is most commonly used in a negative manner.</p>
<p>Yellow journalism started in New York because two newspapers needed more circulation. The war for more circulation was between the Journal and the World newspapers of New York. More, importantly the war was between two people: William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Hearst worked for the</p>
<p>Page 1</p>
<p>Journal and Pulitzer for the World. (Joseph Pulitzer)</p>
<p>The comic strip named The Yellow Kid was how yellow journalism was named. The strip written by Richard Felton Outcalt was a comic strip that sensationalized news topics of the time. It became a hit in the Sunday edition of the Journal because it was the first colored comic strip in a newspaper. (Joseph Pulitzer)</p>
<p>The war between these two men was labeled bloody even though the</p>
<p>only blood shed was in the wars they talked about. At the time of this so-called war in journalism, there was a real war happening in Cuba. The Spanish and the Cubans were fighting and the two newspapers thought they could get more readers by writing about the war. (Spanish American War)</p>
<p>They sensationalized about battles and told of reports that the Spanish were brutalizing the Cubans. These reports even caught the attention of President McKinley. He was really against sending anyone into Cuba but the public was so caught by the story that he was almost forced to send troops. So, McKinley</p>
<p>Page 2</p>
<p>waged war against Spain. This war was really caused by two newspapers that needed more circulation. At the end of the war however, the World had been accused of false reports. Also one of it s reporters was kicked out of Cuba after his first story came out. This lowered the World s reputation and put the Journal on top. From then on people would run to newsstands to read the</p>
<p>accounts of the Journals reporters in Cuba. In the end, yellow journalism was responsible for the American Empire in Cuba and paved the way for how guerilla war was reported. (JosephnPulitzer)</p>
<p>A form of Yellow Journalism was also used in a documentary on the Vietnam War which ended up causing a $120 million lawsuit against CBS. In 1982, CBS decided to make a documentary about the Vietnam War and how they believed that President Johnson knew there were more enemy fighters than he was letting on. They cut corners in the investigative reporting and made it seem that General William C. Westmoreland knew there were more enemies than he told about. CBS said that he and the President were part of a Conspiracy. The General</p>
<p>Page 3</p>
<p>then filed a $120 million libel suit against CBS and won. (Kowet, Don)</p>
<p>Today there are many kinds of yellow journalism and it is used everywhere. There is a whole magazine that is just yellow journalism. In the movies, yellow journalism is at large as well. The movie Jacob the Liar is all about how yellow journalism can inspire people. In the movie, Robin Williams makes up inspiring news just to keep the soldiers of his country in good spirits. This is a great parallel of Yellow Journalism. (Jakob the Liar)</p>
<p>Tabloids are probably the biggest users of Yellow Journalism today. A tabloid is a magazine that holds only sensational news stories about celebrities, murder and religion. They are very popular because people like hearing the gruesome accounts that are in the tabloids which are not in more reputable newspapers or in newscasts . Tabloids started as newspapers that were about half the size of regular ones. They printed short news stories and some of them were fake. The New York Post was the first successful tabloid. After that follow The Sun. Today tabloids are large magazines with color photos and big headlines, often</p>
<p>Page 4</p>
<p>about celebrities. (Tabloids)</p>
<p>Although people love reading tabloids, they do cause some unrest with the celebrities they attack. Liz Taylor was one of the most attacked celebrities of the tabloids. She has tried getting back at them, but they say they have reliable sources so the article can stay. Also there are always headlines about people seeing Elvis. This makes some people angry because those stories are just attempts to get into the paper. (Tabloids)</p>
<p>The reason people have made the tabloid industry so big is because they like the grim facts and dirty details. The tabloids come right out and give people what they want. Today tabloids sell 2.4 million copies a day on the weekdays and 4.2 million copies on Sundays.(Tabloids) They will bring yellow journalism into the next millennium.</p>
<p>Yellow Journalism started in the 1890 s with the war between the Journal and the World. Now it is the 2000 s and Yellow Journalism is still reported. It has caused a war between newspapers and countries. When corners are</p>
<p>Page 5</p>
<p>cut in reporting, that too is Yellow Journalism. It can be helpful though, as illustrated in the film Jakob the Liar. Now, 100 years later from when it first came about, it is helping to sell millions of magazines this year and helping to bring out people s most private secrets to the newsstand.</p>
<p>The phrase yellow journalism is said to have been coined in the late nineteenth century (about 1867) to describe Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst's newspapers. Some say it came from controversies surrounding bitter struggles over Richard Felton Outcault's Yellow Kid. Accounts of the derivation are widespread in various dictionaries, histories, and chronicles of journalism. It also has a connection with the Spanish-American war of 1898. Yellow journalism developed as a direct result of the controversies between Pulitzer's New York World and Hearst's New York Journal over Outcault's Yellow Kid. This phrase was taken to characterize New York's sensational papers, but it was not the phrase of choice nor was it differentiated from several other expressions in use at that time. When the newspaper world found out about the United States going to war with Spain, many newspapers published cartoons that commented and criticized Spain and the hysteria. Circulation is an apt term for the newspaper industry, for to threaten a paper's circulation is indeed to threaten its lifeblood. During the 1890s, one of the most protracted wars in journalism occurred in New York between Joseph Pulitzer's World and William Randolph Hearst's Journal. In many ways, the battle was as much about blood as it was bloody, for the outcome of this conflict was yellow journalism. The first salvo in the war was launched when Hearst's Journal appeared on November 7, 1895. Hearst, born in 1863, was the son of silver miner who had made his fortune on the Comstock Lode. He entered Harvard when he was 19 where he largely neglected his studies until he was expelled in 1885 for a practical joke played on the faculty. Still, he had developed an interest for print media at Harvard, where he was business manager of the Harvard Lampoon. After his expulsion, Hearst successfully lobbied his father to allow him manage the San Francisco Examiner, a paper owned by the elder Hearst for political reasons, which Hearst turned into a success, ironically enough, by modeling the paper after the New York World. The reason for the New York World's success was a close understanding of the desires of its audience by its owner Joseph Pulitzer. Pulitzer was an immigrant, born in Hungary in 1847, who came to America in 1864 when he was 17 as a recruit for the Union Army during the Civil War. Upon his discharge in 1865, he found himself unemployed in St. Louis. After a series of career misfires, Pulitzer eventually discovered his calling in reporting and the newspaper business. Through a number of clever business maneuvers and newspaper ownership's, Pulitzer eventually bought the St. Louis Dispatch in 1878 for its Associated Press membership. Three days later he merged it with another paper, the Post. By 1880 Pulitzer had made the Post-Dispatch the most successful newspaper in St. Louis. Pulitzer had realized early on that the Civil War had created a desire among the people for news of all kind, which he sated by coverage of economic, political, and social trends. While on a vacation for health reasons in 1883, Pulitzer bought the financially troubled New York World. The World quickly became one of New York's most popular papers because Pulitzer sought to capture two sets of readers: those interested in significant news events and those desiring sensational or human-interest stories. The new expanded size of the paper allowed for more features and stunts, such as Nellie Bly's trip around the world, more advertising, and color comics.When the Journal began competing with the World, the sensationalism was magnified. Preachers, librarians, social clubs, and critics began to decry the lurid angle that all stories took. An interview of French actress Anna Held by reporter Alan Dale for the Journal, for example, ran under the headline "Mlle. Anna Held Receives Alan Dale, Attired in a Nightie" accompanied by sketches of the actress in a night gown. The battle between the two papers was a protracted one, fought through paper content, price slashing, and staff raiding. Ultimately, these papers would contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War. Yet, in that chaotic atmosphere of manic reporting, such current fixtures as the comics and the crusading reporter were born.The phrase yellow journalism is said to have been coined in the late nineteenth century (about 1867) to describe Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst's newspapers. Some say it came from controversies surrounding bitter struggles over Richard Felton Outcault's Yellow Kid. Accounts of the derivation are widespread in various dictionaries, histories, and chronicles of journalism. It also has a connection with the Spanish-American war of 1898. Yellow journalism developed as a direct result of the controversies between Pulitzer's New York World and Hearst's New York Journal over Outcault's Yellow Kid. This phrase was taken to characterize New York's sensational papers, but it was not the phrase of choice nor was it differentiated from several other expressions in use at that time. When the newspaper world found out about the United States going to war with Spain, many newspapers published cartoons that commented and criticized Spain and the hysteria. Circulation is an apt term for the newspaper industry, for to threaten a paper's circulation is indeed to threaten its lifeblood. During the 1890s, one of the most protracted wars in journalism occurred in New York between Joseph Pulitzer's World and William Randolph Hearst's Journal. In many ways, the battle was as much about blood as it was bloody, for the outcome of this conflict was yellow journalism. The first salvo in the war was launched when Hearst's Journal appeared on November 7, 1895. Hearst, born in 1863, was the son of silver miner who had made his fortune on the Comstock Lode. He entered Harvard when he was 19 where he largely neglected his studies until he was expelled in 1885 for a practical joke played on the faculty. Still, he had developed an interest for print media at Harvard, where he was business manager of the Harvard Lampoon. After his expulsion, Hearst successfully lobbied his father to allow him manage the San Francisco Examiner, a paper owned by the elder Hearst for political reasons, which Hearst turned into a success, ironically enough, by modeling the paper after the New York World.</p>
<p>The reason for the New York World's success was a close understanding of the desires of its audience by its owner Joseph Pulitzer. Pulitzer was an immigrant, born in Hungary in 1847, who came to America in 1864 when he was 17 as a recruit for the Union Army during the Civil War. Upon his discharge in 1865, he found himself unemployed in St. Louis. After a series of career misfires, Pulitzer eventually discovered his calling in reporting and the newspaper business. Through a number of clever business maneuvers and newspaper ownership's, Pulitzer eventually bought the St. Louis Dispatch in 1878 for its Associated Press membership. Three days later he merged it with another paper, the Post. By 1880 Pulitzer had made the Post-Dispatch the most successful newspaper in St. Louis. Pulitzer had realized early on that the Civil War had created a desire among the people for news of all kind, which he sated by coverage of economic, political, and social trends. While on a vacation for health reasons in 1883, Pulitzer bought the financially troubled New York World. The World quickly became one of New York's most popular papers because Pulitzer sought to capture two sets of readers: those interested in significant news events and those desiring sensational or human-interest stories. The new expanded size of the paper allowed for more features and stunts, such as Nellie Bly's trip around the world, more advertising, and color comics.When the Journal began competing with the World, the sensationalism was magnified. Preachers, librarians, social clubs, and critics began to decry the lurid angle that all stories took. An interview of French actress Anna Held by reporter Alan Dale for the Journal, for example, ran under the headline "Mlle. Anna Held Receives Alan Dale, Attired in a Nightie" accompanied by sketches of the actress in a night gown. The battle between the two papers was a protracted one, fought through paper content, price slashing, and staff raiding. Ultimately, these papers would contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War. Yet, in that chaotic atmosphere of manic reporting, such current fixtures as the comics and the crusading reporter were born.The phrase yellow journalism is said to have been coined in the late nineteenth century (about 1867) to describe Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst's newspapers. Some say it came from controversies surrounding bitter struggles over Richard Felton Outcault's Yellow Kid. Accounts of the derivation are widespread in various dictionaries, histories, and chronicles of journalism. It also has a connection with the Spanish-American war of 1898. Yellow journalism developed as a direct result of the controversies between Pulitzer's New York World and Hearst's New York Journal over Outcault's Yellow Kid. This phrase was taken to characterize New York's sensational papers, but it was not the phrase of choice nor was it differentiated from several other expressions in use at that time. When the newspaper world found out about the United States going to war with Spain, many newspapers published cartoons that commented and criticized Spain and the hysteria. Circulation is an apt term for the newspaper industry, for to threaten a paper's circulation is indeed to threaten its lifeblood. During the 1890s, one of the most protracted wars in journalism occurred in New York between Joseph Pulitzer's World and William Randolph Hearst's Journal. In many ways, the battle was as much about blood as it was bloody, for the outcome of this conflict was yellow journalism. The first salvo in the war was launched when Hearst's Journal appeared on November 7, 1895. Hearst, born in 1863, was the son of silver miner who had made his fortune on the Comstock Lode. He entered Harvard when he was 19 where he largely neglected his studies until he was expelled in 1885 for a practical joke played on the faculty. Still, he had developed an interest for print media at Harvard, where he was business manager of the Harvard Lampoon. After his expulsion, Hearst successfully lobbied his father to allow him manage the San Francisco Examiner, a paper owned by the elder Hearst for political reasons, which Hearst turned into a success, ironically enough, by modeling the paper after the New York World. The reason for the New York World's success was a close understanding of the desires of its audience by its owner Joseph Pulitzer. Pulitzer was an immigrant, born in Hungary in 1847, who came to America in 1864 when he was 17 as a recruit for the Union Army during the Civil War. Upon his discharge in 1865, he found himself unemployed in St. Louis. After a series of career misfires, Pulitzer eventually discovered his calling in reporting and the newspaper business. Through a number of clever business maneuvers and newspaper ownership's, Pulitzer eventually bought the St. Louis Dispatch in 1878 for its Associated Press membership. Three days later he merged it with another paper, the Post. By 1880 Pulitzer had made the Post-Dispatch the most successful newspaper in St. Louis. Pulitzer had realized early on that the Civil War had created a desire among the people for news of all kind, which he sated by coverage of economic, political, and social trends. While on a vacation for health reasons in 1883, Pulitzer bought the financially troubled New York World. The World quickly became one of New York's most popular papers because Pulitzer sought to capture two sets of readers: those interested in significant news events and those desiring sensational or human-interest stories. The new expanded size of the paper allowed for more features and stunts, such as Nellie Bly's trip around the world, more advertising, and color comics.When the Journal began competing with the World, the sensationalism was magnified. Preachers, librarians, social clubs, and critics began to decry the lurid angle that all stories took. An interview of French actress Anna Held by reporter Alan Dale for the Journal, for example, ran under the headline "Mlle. Anna Held Receives Alan Dale, Attired in a Nightie" accompanied by sketches of the actress in a night gown. The battle between the two papers was a protracted one, fought through paper content, price slashing, and staff raiding. Ultimately, these papers would contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War. Yet, in that chaotic atmosphere of manic reporting, such current fixtures as the comics and the crusading reporter were born.</p>