<p>Abstract 1</p>
<p>The research paper critically analyses the effect of inadequate protection for migrant workers in the food and beverage industry. The research identifies the lack of adequate shelter, anti-immigration laws and lack of basic citizen's rights.</p>
<p>A critical analysis of the data sources and methods applied is considered. The Literature review section highlights the work of other researchers with respect to the research question 'What exactly does it mean to say that migrant workers lack adequate protection in the food and beverage industry” A further analysis on the methodology is conducted which includes: Evaluation of housing conditions, the impact of staffing, animals salary and the 'No- Match” analysis.</p>
<p>The research paper is then conducted by highlighting the fact that there are labor shortage in the industry, therefore there is an increased dependency on migrant workers. Despite this fact, migrant workers are left without good conditions of service and ultimately lack of adequate protection especially with the anti-immigration laws in place.</p>
<p>The paper then concludes by proposing better rights and protection for migrant workers in the food and beverage industry.</p>
<p>Introduction 2</p>
<p>INTRODUCTION</p>
<p>Purpose</p>
<p>The purpose of this research is to critically assess and analyse the effect of inadequate protection of migrants in the food and beverage industry.</p>
<p>Scope</p>
<p>This research identifies the lack of housing, anti- immigration laws and basic citizen's rights in the food and beverage industry.</p>
<p>Data, sources and Methods applied.</p>
<p>An assessment of the housing conditions of the migrants was evaluated.</p>
<p>The Sonoma and Napa counties of California was studied. The total numbers of the combined work force was determined and thereafter the percentage and number of migrants that have a shelter was then evaluated.</p>
<p>A survey of the impact of staffing and plant services as a result of anti-immigrant laws was carried out. Annual salary and the job satisfaction was surveyed among the migrants. Finally, the use of the 'NO -MATCH” data in the enforcement of immigration laws evaluated to show the effect of incorrect earning and information of migrant workers in the food and beverage industry.</p>
<p>Introduction 3</p>
<p>Limitations</p>
<p>Certain limitations were encountered in this research. The effect of improper medical service and due compensation have not be considered in detail due to the lack of relevant data</p>
<p>LITERATURE REVIEW</p>
<p>Robert Mondavi has often mentioned, ' California has the soils and climate. California along with Australia, has led the wine world in technical advance in the winery and now in the vineyard- although there is still work to be done there. California can compete with other wine producing regions at almost every price level. From $5 a bottle to $100- plus,” (Mondavi, October 2002). Over the pact fifty years, national surveys of Americans (NORC 1947,1972-98; Harris 1973,1981)</p>
<p>Shows consistently that California has one advantages over the competition: the vineyard workers. There isn't another vine growing region that workers with the worth ethnic the ability to rapidly learn necessary skills and the joy of life that California has with its Mexican and other Latin American field workers. They are an asset that can hardly be measured in dollars. The Sonoma and Napa counties alone have a combined harvest workforce of 16,000. there are only a few hundred beds for migrants on the entire North coast workers sleep in churches, crawled into single rooms, under bridges and wherever they can find room for a blanket. The vineyard workers, both migrants and permanent,</p>
<p>Literature Review 4</p>
<p>documented and undocumented, are the most precious commodity California vine growers have. (FirstenFeld, 2002).</p>
<p>Amelia Morgan Ceja put it well (Morgan, A.C., 2002) when she said that without the Mexican workers, there would be no California wine industry. The workers are responsible adults, supporting familiar back in Mexico. They deserve to be treated as such and allowed the refreshment and relaxation that comes from a cold or (why not?) a glass or two of wine. It is bitterly ironic that wine generous should enforce prohibition on their own workers.</p>
<p>Over the past two decades researches have increasingly investigated the determinant of the effect of larger staff (Kearl, Harris 1981) on the food and beverage industry. They postulated that the larger the staff and the better the welfare, the more efficient and productive the industry becomes. Requests for supplementary personnel were followed by wishers for more communication and better directions, better or updated equipment and computer technologies, more training and the availability of proper resources. While doing more with less has been an issue for years in most industrial especially the food and beverage (Harper, February 2004), pending anti-immigrants laws may have a huge impact on the operating efficiency and staffing in industry. When asked to described what, if any impact on staffing and plant services</p>
<p>Literature Review 5</p>
<p>might occur as a result of anti-emigrants laws, Nancy Cruzan, stated that 'one hundred percent of plant hourly workers are migrants, so we would be grateful affected by anti-emigrants labor initiatives (Cruzan, 2004).</p>
<p>However, some researchers are more optimistic. 'Industry will experience a period of labor shortage, but these problems will diminish over time as the migrants work force learns the proper process to gain employment” (Doyle, 2005) and 'It should improve staffing by providing a system to get manual labor to do unskilled job through a documented controlled process. ' (Doyle, 2005)</p>
<p>Accordingly to Joy LePree, food and beverage workers find their jobs satisfying, but say there's room for improvement ( LePree, December 1, 2006)</p>
<p>Peter Wellington, a wine maker wrote a letter decrying the treatment received by the migrants workers He stated ' This is not a problem of illegal immigrants, it's a problem of homeless immigrants that creates a problem both for the community and the workers who don't have decent facilities, (Wellington 1991). He relates 'If you're going to go out and pick group 10hours a day and have to cook over an open fire and not have a toilet or a place to take a shower or a dry place to sleep when it rains, that's in human”</p>
<p>In mainland China, there is and enormous floating population moving into the industrial towns cities. Their hands have helped build the cities high-rises, and their blood and sweat has paved the enter-city highways. The toil over 10 hours a day producing a</p>
<p>Literature review6</p>
<p>range of goods in the manufactureing industry. Let they do not even have basic citizens rights. (Chen K.K, 2002).</p>
<p>Migrants workers may be workers, but the industry in only interested in exploring their most productive years. They are not given adequate shelter, not insured against unemployment or old age, they are still denied pensions overtime pay, and working hours may as well not exist.</p>
<p>Underlying every theory in the issue of inadequate protection. What exactly does it mean to say that migrant workers lack adequate protection in the food and beverage industry?. This is because migrant workers constitute the majority work force and are essential to the growth of the industry. They lack adequate protection, yet they are indispensable.</p>
<p>METHODOLOGY</p>
<p>Evaluation of housing conditions.</p>
<p>An evaluation of the housing conditions of the migrants workers was conducted. The study considered the case of Sonoma and Napa countier of California. The total number of the combined workforce is 16,000. Only 500 beds are for migrants workers on</p>
<p>Methodology7</p>
<p>the entire North cost. Workers sleep in churches, crowed into single rooms, under bridge and wherever they can find room for a blanket.</p>
<p>Impact of staffing</p>
<p>As surveying was carried out on the impact of staffing and plant service as a result of anti-immigration laws. Some of the employers in the industry were 100% of the result showered that 'immigrants. This could lead to a huge effect on the productivity in the food and beverage sector. Another 50% of the work force could be lost. Still, others fear it would shut down operations entirely.</p>
<p>However, some were more optimistic that the industry will this problem will diminish over time as the migrant workforce learns the proper process to gain employment.</p>
<p>Immigration issues ranked among the top five most important workplace issues companies face today. When respondents were asked in a open ended question about the most important workplace issues faced today, safety was cited most often retaining trained staff and a qualified workplace was the second most significant issue with competition and the labor shortage tying third, communications ranked fourth and finally, immigrants taking fifth place.</p>
<p>Methodology8</p>
<p>Annual Salary</p>
<p>The annual salary of migrants workers shows that 90% of migrants workers are under paid, 10% still make good money ($75-$100) a ton). Most of them come back year after year. Job satisfaction in good but can be better</p>
<p>No- Match data</p>
<p>The use of SSA's ' No-match data with respect to immigration laws was analysed. A survey shows that employers used the same SSN for as many as 10 different workers in the same tax year as many as 308 times over a 16-year period studied. The result showed that employers used the same SSN for more than 100 earnings reports.</p>
<p>Employers most frequently associated with incorrect earnings reports belonged to industry groups historically known to employ illegal immigrants such as agriculture, food and beverage industry. Employers in these industries are most likely to file earnings reports with incorrect information.</p>
<p>Conclusion 9</p>
<p>CONCLUSION</p>
<p>For decades, the most labor-intensive sectors of American agriculture have been dependent on alien workers to meet basic workforce needs. In recent years almost all sectors have dealt with labor shortage by employing alien workers. The food and beverage industry is no exception. Unfortunately, these migrant workers are given inadequate protection in terms of housing wages pension and anti-immigration laws.</p>
<p>Despite the fact that the contribution of these workers in the industry cannot be quantified, they are not given better conditions of service. Better rights for alien workers is therefore proposed.</p>
<p>References10</p>
<p>REFERENCES</p>
<p>1. Chen K. K, 2002,” Unprotected Migrant workers”NewYork: Wines and</p>
<p>Vines.</p>
<p>2. Cruzan, 2004, 'Effect of anti- immigrant laws” Boston: Evans Publishers.</p>
<p>3. Doyle, 2005, 'Labor Shortage and the Food Industry” Chicago: Chicago</p>
<p>Press</p>
<p>4. Firstenfeld, 2002, 'What Wine Growers Have” Boston: Heinemann</p>
<p>Publishers.</p>
<p>5. Harper, February 2004, 'Alien workers and anti- immigrant laws '.New York: Wines Vines.</p>
<p>6. Kearl; Harris 1981, 'Adequate Compensation for Migrants workers” New York: New York Press.</p>
<p>7. Le Pree December 1, 2006, 'The joy of Food and Beverage workers” Boston: McGraw hill Press</p>
<p>8. Mondavi R, October 2002, 'working in wine and vines” New York: New</p>
<p>York Press</p>
<p>9. Morgan. A. C, 2002 'California's secret Weapon” New York: Wines and Vines Publishers.</p>
<p>10. NORC, 1947, 1972-79, Harris 1973, 1981, 'National Survey of Americans” New York: New York Press.</p>
<p>11. Wellington 1991, ' Treatment received by Migrant Workers”: Retrieved the Pick of the Crop.</p>